First man-amphibian was an American Francis Faleichik. He underwent appropriate surgery. However, further destiny of the experiment became the secret of the USA Navy authorities. Other unique scientific developments, which could have already opened the door to the underwater world, are kept in secret safes.
In 1962 at the Second International Congress of Underwater Researches World famous oceanologist Jake Iv Kusto said that beautiful dream about a man-amphibian may come true. In his opinion, homo aquaticus (underwater human being) won't have to have complicated diving gear. He will have a small implant, which will saturate blood with oxygen. First animal experiments were planned to be accomplished in 1970s, human experiments - in 1080s, and by 2000, according to Kusto's forecast, homo aquaticus will be developing underwater territory.
The time passed but nothing like that seems to be happening. Was the scientist mistaken? Not exactly. Experiments on creating amphibian people were being carried out, but all the results were taken and hidden by secret service. Of course! As once the head of the USA Navy Medicine Researches Laboratory Jorge Bond told to reporters, hypothetically a human being with artificial gills could have fantastic abilities: he would be able to dive to the depth of 3,5 km. You hardly can imagine a better saboteur! We don't know if this number was imaginative or the head of the laboratory had some real facts,. If surgeries on implanting gills into human body were being carried out, it was done secretly.
And according to the information from Russian magazine, researches in this field were going in another direction.
Doctor Johannes Kilstra from Leyden University in Netherlands supposed that gills function might accomplish human lungs. He considered this way: both in gills and in lungs the same processes take place. A human being will be able to use water for breathing if there will be enough oxygen dissolved. In 1959 a series of experiments took place. Mice placed into physiological solution saturated with oxygen under pressure of three atmospheres lived for several hours.
The American F. Faleichic agreed to be the first man-amphibian. Experiment was carried out in the Medical center of Duke University in the narrow circle of selected personnel. News-reel keep some details of this unique experiment. After anesthesia an elastic tube was inserted into the probationer's trachea, and filled his lungs with special solution. Aquanaut was calm and showed that he felt alright. Faleichik was breathing with water for four hours. The further results of Kilster's work are unknown. The doctor stopped publishing his scientific works. Foreign mass media informed that he made an agreement with the USA Navy. The researches of Holland scientist were continued by the companies 'Lockheed', 'Chrysler ' and 'Westinghouse' which are the famous producers of military gear.
American biochemists Celia and Josef Bonventura created a miniature device able to extract oxygen from seawater, and in 1976 they patented their invention. The book-size pocket, fixed on diver's body could provide him with oxygen without limits of time. For a submarine with the crew of 150 people this device constituted a cylinder of 1-meter diameter and 3-meter length.
The secret of the device was in the use of hemoglobin, which not only colours blood red, but transports oxygen. The apparatus invited by Celia and Josef contained spongy polyurethane material sodden with hemoglobin. Water was being passed through it, and the absorbent oxygen was being collected by application of low electric current.
American company 'Aquantic corporation' was known to pay a million dollars for the right to deal with the Bonventuras' patent. However, apparatus built on the hemoglobin principal have never appeared on the market. Pentagon is likely to lay its hand on this invention too.
But they didn't manage to hide in the secret safes the human's dream about conquering sea depths. A group of journalists have recently witnessed a fantastic dive, accomplished without any devices and technical tricks.
Philippine fisher L. Pakino from island Lunson rubbed himself with oil, to protect himself from cold at the depth (about 60 meters), took a hard load in his hands and jumped from the boat to the sea. One minute passed, two minutes passed: in ten minutes representatives of the local press started worry. But the fisher's friends said that everything is alright. If Pakino doesn't come up, then he just doesn't want it yet. After almost an hour Pakino appeared at last on the surface. Sensational reports about the man-amphibian from island Luson appeared in the mass media all over the world. American Divers' Association had read about it too and didn't believe it. 'It's impossible to spend almost an hour without breathing! Pakino is likely to have had the compressed air cylinders:' They wrote a letter to Philippines and received the invitation to come and make sure of it themselves. The Americans came fully armed with aqualungs, and video cameras for underwater shooting. This time Pakino even broke his record - he spent under water one hour and five minutes. During the whole immersion the representatives of the Association were making continuous shooting.
So what is the main point of this phenomenon? Probably Pakino used the methods of Indian yogis, who demonstrated their abilities to do without food, water and air during a considerable period of time. They were sewed up in a thick sacks and buried for five-seven days. However, yogis fell in a special state when their bodies became stiff, and after that they had to be rubbed to recover. And Pakino went on moving, absorbing energy and oxygen: Doctors and specialists haven't revealed yet the secret of the man-amphibian from island Lucson. All they can say that physically he is just like everybody else.
Probably Norwegian professor P. Sholander come closer than others to the solution of the man-amphibian secret. 'Cachalot, - he says - as commonly known, is able to dive at the depth of thousand meters and stay there for an hour. How this sea giant manages to maintain his vital functions in such conditions? Studying this unusual ability of the biggest sea mammal, we came to the conclusion that animals muscles work at the expense of the energy released in the process of glucose transformation into lactic acid, in the process of anaerobe reaction (without oxygen participation)'.
Sholander, studying the blood content of the Australian pearl fishers, discovered: to some extent man possess the same anaerobe mechanism as cachalot. In the cells of the organisms of professional divers, who spent considerable time under water the increased concentration of lactic acid has been registered. It means that under certain conditions human organism is able to turn to anoxic energy supplement of body tissues. In the opinion of Norwegian scientist if we learn to use this ability, we'll be able to spend under water as much time as whales.